Factors Which Can Practically Be Controlled

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1. Smoking
We already know that doctors may have told us long time ago that smoking leads to a notorious heart disease. However, when it comes to a long span of time, the habit of smoking is probably considered to have no direct relationship with hypertension. Having said that, well, there has been a few investigations revealed that such important relationships between smoking and hypertension could have been missed out from previous researches carried out. However, the significant link which could not yet be discovered from previous studies in regards to this issue addressed has recently been proven, in which the habit of smoking tends to cause a person suffering from high blood pressure.

To begin with, some medical researchers who have performed their recent investigations by taking the blood samples of smokers found that the systolic blood pressure of those smokers within five minutes of sucking a cigarette will have increased dramatically at an average level of more than 20 mm/ Hg before gradually declined to the regular stage of their blood pressure after 30 minutes. The typical patients with labile hypertension (especially, among smokers) whose blood pressure often jumps by the time when it gets responded, in many cases, is often occurred due to the everyday stress that they deal with.

In addition to that, people who smoke in pre-hypertension stage are likely to have 140/90 mm/Hg in the measurement of their blood pressure. Due to the fact that nicotine constricts the blood vessels and forcing their heart to work even harder, thus, both their heart rate and blood pressure will increase simultaneously. Needless to say, the types of various chemicals contained in any tobacco can further elevate the risked factors of suffering from a heart disease in other ways. It is because of tobacco reduces the oxygen supplied in a human body, therefore, the amount of HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) or "good cholesterol" inside the smokers’ body will be declined; making their blood platelets more likely to stick together and form numerous clots which is merely the primary cause of having a heart attack and stroke.

2. Obesity
Excessive weight and hypertension often go hand in hand because of the extra few kilograms which make our heart work harder. By definition, the word obesity practically means if our weight is more than 20% of our ideal height. So, our weight is basically not only important, but also it is where we carry our excessive fat. After all, people with excessive fat on their hips are more prone to be at risk of suffering from hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes.

3. Lifestyle
Compared to those who are physically active, the people who are heavily occupied will likely to have suffered from hypertension and heart attack. Just like the other muscles, our heart is getting stronger with exercises. It is because of our heart will pump the amount of blood more when we exercise, perhaps, another advantage derived from this is that is it can help us to lose our weight so as to increase our HDL level; lowering the fat produced from our food consumption that flow through our circulatory system in our blood stream.

4. Alcohol Consumption
Nowadays, there are many studies which have associated the amount of alcohol consumption with hypertension. Drinking alcohol excessively about three times or more in a day is partly responsible for 7% of cases in hypertension. In short, it is suggested that for women who suffer from hypertension, they should not have an above degree of alcohol consumption more than 1 time per day while for the men is no more than twice a day.

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A Few Inevitable Factors of Hypertension

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Even if we cannot control certain risk of sickness factors, however, it does not mean that we can simply forget or ignore about them. Well, by considering the risk of such inevitable factors, it can actually help us to understand the whole hazardous cardiovascular figure and that will empower us to be fully aware of them.

a. Genetic Cause
Hypertension, like many other health issues, is naturally occurred in the aspect of family tree perspectives. For example, if one or two people whose parents or siblings have a medical record of hypertension, chances of suffering from that disease is certainly bigger. Well, according to some previous medical research, it is reported that 25% of cases in the family have a genetic cause. However, this is still an uncertain thing by any means since there are also other factors that can contribute to the occurrence of suffering from hypertension in the family in which one of them is due to the impact of environmental influences. So, the children’s dietary, some of the skills to face a problem, and the trend towards some healthy and unhealthy habits, for instance, are often formed by the behavior of their parents and social influences.

b. Age
Although the aging process does not always trigger hypertension, however, high blood pressure usually occurs among the elders. For example, at the age between 30 and 65, systolic blood pressure tends to have increased by an average of 20 mm/Hg and will continue reaching after the age of 70. An increasing risk associated with these age aspects largely explain the isolated systolic hypertension as it is related to a growing peripheral vascular resistance (resistance of blood flow in peripheral blood vessels) in the arteries.

c. Gender
In some cases, men often experience the signs of hypertension at the age of late thirties while women tend to have it after their menopause. Women's blood pressures, especially in their systolic, have increased more rapidly through their aging process. In fact, after the age of 55, women tend to be prone to have a higher risk of developing blood pressure. After all, one of the causes of this pattern perhaps is due to hormonal differences in both sexes; a decreasing estrogen production at menopause in which women are likely to lose some immune system that can elevate their blood pressure.

d. Race
Geographically, the African - Americans people show a higher rate of hypertension than any other populations since they tend to develop such risks of blood pressure early in a more aggressive way. And perhaps, those people are likely to have a chance two times or more in suffering a fatal stroke, one and a half times to have died from heart disease, and the rest of four times is prone to have grown a kidney failure compared to Caucasians (the White people). Bottom line, we should keep it in mind that hypertension is the number one of triggering factor among the African - Americans' death.

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Reasons Why Hypertension Is Dangerous

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First of all, we all already know the fact that hypertension makes our heart work even harder. Besides, it is not just a little hard work that can never hurt anyone. In the case of human heart, the answer is definitely not. Perhaps, it is because violent throbbing blood can damage artery walls gradually. The smaller arteries, for instance, are particularly vulnerable. Such responses as thickening the artery walls by removing both the elasticity and the strength of the artery itself will result in the less amount of blood circulated which in that case, it can deprive oxygen and nutrients to pass through the cardiovascular system.

Second of all, vessel walls on the contrary are easily breakable. In other words, hypertension does not only damage the blood vessels, but also other important organs such as the heart, brain, kidneys, and eyes. So, the longer we suffer from hypertension, the greater the chance of our other organs will get damaged which eventually, it can lead to certain serious conditions such as heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, and even blindness.

Third of all, when talking about how important it is to avoid such risks that can cause serious conditions to our health; firstly, we need to know the exact causes of hypertension occurred from blood circulatory viewpoint. To begin with, the vessel walls which have been damaged will cause inflammation. This inflammation, then, will result in thickening and turning to form plaque made from fat or cholesterol. When the plaque is formed in the arteries, the blood vessels become narrow and causing atherosclerosis. After that, the plaque will then restrict the flow of blood stream which makes our heart work even harder. Since the plaque causes our blood vessels more vulnerable to atherosclerosis, therefore, hypertension will contribute to the occurrence of stroke or heart attack; causing a serious sequence of blood circulatory problems from time to time.

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Characteristics of Hypertension Diagnosis

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Perhaps, by the time when the procedure of diagnosis is confirmed, then the next step is to determine whether there is a serious damage to the organs infected and which one of them or more could be damaged the most. So, it is important that we need to know or at least determine whether our hypertension is appeared to be the type of primary or secondary.

To start kick off the above topic, the typical procedure of performing diagnosis can be done through a complete evaluation which incorporates a patient's medical history, physical check-up, laboratory test, and other diagnostic method such as chest X-ray. When a health professional (in this case, a doctor) inquires some specified details of our medical history, it will be highly sensible to disclose those information candidly (particularly, if there is a change in our body weight, physical activity, alcohol consumption, or the use of tobacco). 

In addition, it is absolutely necessary that we need to mention as well if there is also the list of prescriptions given over the drugs that we may consume routinely, be it the herbal products or the sort of illegal drugs. By the way, there are some drug substances which are proven or found to have a side effect of raising our blood pressure contradictorily.

On the other hand, the results of other medical test can actually help us to perform a better diagnosis. The analysis of urine and blood test on a regular basis, for example, can represent a person's health condition. Additionally, any protein or blood appeared in the urine may indicate kidney damage whereas the level of glucose may illustrate diabetes.

Technically, such a blood test performed can specifically calculate the amount level of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, bicarbonate, glucose, cholesterol, urea nitrogen in which they are identified as the indicator of kidney functions. If let’s say that our doctor suspects that we have suffered from other conditions or damage in our organs, then there is no doubt that our doctor will perform further research or test procedure.

Actually, when we perform our medical test in form of exercise, it is designed to assess how the cardiovascular system in our body is responding to physical activity. The test monitors, for example, are used to display the electrical activity of our heart and blood pressure during the process of exercising like when we do pedaling on a bike/bicycle or walking on a treadmill. Unlike those physical exercises which are intended to assess the cardiovascular system in our body, the stress test on the other hand may help us to indicate problems which do not appear while we are resting. Therefore, in case if we have high blood pressure, then any information given from those tests should be prioritized on the first thought before we begin to do our regular exercise program.

Meanwhile, a variety of symptoms such as urinary tract infections, frequent urination, or pelvic pain towards the lower side of abdomen may indicate the problem of having a kidney damage. If a doctor happens to have heard the sound of rapid blood flow through his or her stethoscope in the pelvis, then this might be the signs of renal artery stenosis. After all, it might be frightening to say that we may have to undergo further diagnosis like the blood test in order to see whether our kidney problem is the one that causes us suffering from hypertension.

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Types of Hypertension

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From the medical viewpoints, there are actually different types of hypertension classified according to their various stages. These types of hypertension will be explained as follows:

a. Primary Hypertension
Some medical experts have already classified different types of hypertension based on the causes and their characteristics. In fact, there are more than 95% of patients with hypertension are on the primary level. By definition, primary hypertension means that the conditions of suffering from hypertension have no identifiable source. Therefore, many experts believe that this primary hypertension is caused by a variety of factors from human lifestyles such as dietary, exercise, and smoking. Additionally, it is also estimated that 50% of the population who are suffering from primary hypertension are the type of "salt sensitive" people, by which the high sodium consumption practically increases their rate of blood pressure.

b. Secondary Hypertension
As the name suggested above, secondary hypertension occurs from physical abnormalities such as kidney disease and adrenal disorders. Only 5 up to 10% of all hypertension, in general, is due to other causes which are the most common one is because of Renal Artery Stenosis. Despite, one of the causes of secondary hypertension which is associated with the 'Renal Artery Stenosis' is due to the phenomenon in which the arteries that supply blood towards kidneys become narrow.

In addition, the condition of secondary hypertension also occurs due to the presence of plaque on the artery walls. So in this case, the condition can occur in younger women as well, by which it is usually because of the overgrowth of the muscle tissue in their artery walls (fibrous-muscular dyspepsia). There are some cases that require immediate surgeries under this condition, but many of them can be managed with angioplasty implementation. The procedure of angioplasty implementation, after all, is subjected to widen the blockage on the artery system by using a balloon which can be inflated and attached to the catheter.

Meanwhile, another cause of secondary hypertension is the excessive production of aldosterone (a hormone produced in the adrenal gland that helps the kidneys regulating the level of potassium and sodium). This condition, in fact, is called 'Hyperaldosteronism' from the medical terms in which it causes the body to retain excessive sodium and loss of potassium that trigger hypertension, weight gain, muscle weakness, and swelling. If there is a tumor in the adrenal glands causing over-production of aldosterone, it usually requires surgery. In some cases, a person who suffers from this condition, sometimes, is advised to restrict him or herself from consuming excessive salt and have some kind of treatment in order to prevent the over-production of aldosterone.

c. Hyperthyroidism
By medical term, the thyroid is a gland which is located inside and in front of the throat. This thyroid, as a matter of fact, produces the amount of hormones to regulate the use of energy spent in our body. When the thyroid becomes hyperactive, the condition is called hyperthyroidism in which the excessive production of hormones triggered changes our heart rate and blood pressure, as it can also change our body weight, digestion system, and other functions like our muscles.

d. Pheochromocytoma
In the context of pheochromocytoma, there are tumors grown which are seemingly rare and issued in the amount of excessive hormone that regulates the activity of our nerve-system. As a result, this increases our arteries become narrow; rising our blood pressure simultaneously. Such symptoms as palpitations, sweating, restlessness, headaches, weight loss and faint; the treatment to overcome these can be done by blocking the effects of hormones and perform a surgery in order to remove those tumors.

e. White-Collar Hypertension
In general, stress can naturally increase our blood pressure. It is for this reason that some people with normal blood pressure may show an increasing rate of their blood pressure from certain medical situations. In the past, when people suffered from white-collar hypertension, the doctors whom they came to see often overlooked the rise of their blood pressure, merely because of those people experienced anxiety beforehand while being diagnosed at clinic or hospital.

However, some experts nowadays argue that the white-collar hypertension deserves to be taken into a serious account because it explains how this stress can affect the rate of blood pressure significantly. After all, it is estimated that there are around 15 - 30% of people with blood pressure are indicated to have suffered from the white-collar hypertension.

f. Malignant Hypertension
Although it is said to be rare, however, malignant hypertension is the most dangerous form of high blood pressure. It is characterized by a sudden increase of blood pressure to outrageous level, along with the diastolic number reaching 120 - 130 mm/Hg or more. Despite being as the most dangerous type of blood pressure of all, such malignant hypertension can also occur at lower level. Unlike the other types of blood pressure, this malignant hypertension is usually followed by dramatic symptoms such as headaches, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, blindness, seizures, and loss of consciousness.

Above all, the malignant hypertension is referred to the emergency condition or situation which makes a person suddenly is at the risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure, permanent kidney damage and cerebral hemorrhage. So, anyone who experiences this condition is strongly advised to receive an immediate treatment at hospital.

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Knowing Some Fundamental Aspects of High Blood Pressure

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From medical perspectives, our arteries are naturally designed to work very well under pressure. Although we cannot see or even feel them in our body at every given moment, however, both our heart and blood vessels are involved in the complex rhythm pressure and resistance. Blood pressure, by definition, is actually the amount of force exerted by the blood inside of our arteries when our blood is being pumped throughout the circulatory system. So, every time our heart muscle is functioning, the blood in our body is being pressed against the walls of vessels around as it is calculated and viewed as part of our systolic blood pressure. So, by the time when our heart begins to relax itself between pulses, the pressure on those walls occurred are calculated as part of the diastolic blood pressure.

Generally, our blood pressure never goes constantly steady at any moment. Perhaps, this is because our body is constantly adjusting to the demands of blood supplied at a certain period. In fact, our blood pressure can change drastically in a matter of seconds. For example, running quickly towards the elevator, hearing the sound of broken glass, or having terrible confrontation with someone else can literally increase our blood pressure surged from 130 mm/Hg to 160 mm/Hg or even more.

There is no doubt that even if we have measured our blood pressure repeatedly, we may end up visiting our doctor again. When a doctor’s meter cuffed or tightened on our upper arm and placing a stethoscope on our elbows, whether we are being conscious or not, he is actually "peeking" into our blood circulatory system inside our main artery system around our arm. 

Technically, when a doctor’s meter is tightened on our arm as he is peeking into our blood circulatory system, the first thing that he will hear is the sound of our blood flowing back into our artery which is being pressed, and taking a note from any numbers appeared on the meter in order to determine the rate of our systolic blood pressure. Additionally, any numbers appeared on the doctor’s meter at the very last moment along with the sounds of our beats will indicate the rate of our diastolic blood pressure.

Meanwhile, when a person’s heart has to work overtime, his or her heart muscle becomes larger and the arteries are pounding relentlessly against the walls (blood vessels). When this happens, it makes the arteries become stiff and narrow. So, when our arteries become stiff and narrow, this will eventually cause such a potential risk of harmful disease like stroke, kidney failure, and heart attack. Overall, there are many modern tools produced nowadays which are designed to help us in monitoring our blood pressure conveniently.

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Hypertension: The Importance of Its Improvement

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Imagine when we sleep at night and we think that our blood pressure is perfectly fine. Then, when we wake up the next day, suddenly we find our blood pressure reaches a dangerous zone. Well, as a matter of fact, this issue already happened to 45 million Americans back in the spring of 2003 after an announcement issued; questioning about what could be the causes that raise the blood pressure of those 45 million people?. 

Well, the announcement published was not just like the novel 'Stephen King' or other books written by 'Bill O'Reilly'. However, it was rather than an official report released by the Joint National Committee of Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood pressures (JNC7). Nevertheless, this so-called JNC7 committee also announced the new national guidelines; changing the definition of blood pressure at normal rate.

Basically, all the types of hypertension are considered as the high blood pressure, but we need to keep it in mind that not all of them are literally regarded as hypertension. High blood pressure, generally, includes all the blood pressure that stands above 120/80 mm/Hg, while the blood pressure at the rate of 140/90 mm/Hg and above are perceived as the hypertension. For those who are suffering from diabetes, their high blood pressure normally reaches at 130/80 mm/Hg.

Meanwhile, according to the old guidelines which were published in 1997, such high blood pressure was considered normal if our systolic blood pressure below 140 mm/Hg along with the diastolic pressure below 90 mm/Hg. However, based on the new guidelines released in the last few decades, the classification of the systolic pressure at 120-139 mm/Hg or the diastolic one at 80-89 mm/Hg are considered as pre-hypertension stage. After all, if a person's blood pressure does not pass the high rates mentioned above, then this can also indicate that his or her blood pressure may occur from time to time if there is no any corrective actions taken immediately.

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International Business Perspectives: Managing the Global Market


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We all know that from business perspectives, international trade occurs when a company is engaged to do business with other nations outside from its home country. In fact, a company does not have to be a multinational firm just to do its foreign direct investment to engage in international businessAs the world shifts towards a global economy which seems to be flexibly integrated, there are more and more companies (both in large and small scales) are going into international business orientation

So, what can be the shift towards a global economy which is supposed to be used as a means for managers in the area of international business environment? Well, the answer is simple. Because of organizations are increasingly involved in the cross-border of trade and investment, managers need to be aware that the task against international business is different from a purely domestic pattern in a wide way. At the most basic level, the differences may take place from the simple fact of countries’ profile.

In general, many countries are different in terms of their culture, political system, economic system, legal system, and their level of economic development. Despite all the talks about the global market and production, these differences between countries are very profound and timeless. On top of that, some patterns that differentiate countries from the above aspects do require international business practices which vary from one country to another. Product marketing activity in Brazil, for example, may require a different approach from the one applied in Germany, or managing the U.S. workers may require different skills compared to managing the workers in Japan or perhaps, maintaining a close relationship with a certain position of government staff may be very important in Mexico as it is not that relevant in United Kingdom.

Moreover, being an international business manager does not only have to be sensitive to those differences, but also needs to adopt the right policies and strategies to deal with them. So, the important thing by which international business is different from the domestic one is the fact that there is a greater complexity appeared in the area of how it is being managed (some sort of particular managerial skills required). Because of this, any international business manager must decide the location chosen where the cost of the production activities can be minimized, so as to maximize the value added on goods or services. Being involved in the area of international business, one has to decide whether or not to follow the ethical workforce and environmental standards which are found and becoming the main issue in many less-developed countries.

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Some Driving Influences Which Can Potentially Affect an Increase of Globalization


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Surely, there are few main factors which affect an increased phenomenon of globalization. Well, ever since the end of the World War II, such a distributing system between countries’ barriers to provide goods, services, and capital had already occurred. In other words, it is due to the dramatic series of technological developments in the area of communication, information, and transportation sectors over the last few decades.

1. THE DECLINE IN TRADE AND INVESTMENT BARRIERS
In any circumstances, an international trade happens when a company exports goods or services to consumers in other countries. Foreign Direct Investment so-called FDI occurs when a company is investing its resources in the business activities outside its home country. Such barriers to international trade, generally, are in the form of high tariffs on imports of the manufacturing goods. Besides, the main purpose of this barrier, actually, is simply to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. However, one of the consequences of the tariff policy is the 'beggar-thy-neighbor trade policies' or vengeance, where other countries increase trade barriers against one another by purpose.

2. THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
A decline of trade barriers, theoretically, makes the global market and production can possibly be achieved. Such changes in technology, in fact, have already made this thing happened, as it becomes today's reality. Ever since the end of the World War II, the earth has experienced a great deal of technological progress in communication, information, and transportation and this includes the emergence of an internet so-called the World Wide Web (www).

In general, such technological advances in telecommunication and transportation have created a certain uniqueness of the global audiences. For example, from Buenos Aires to Boston or from Birmingham to Beijing, many people nowadays are able to fly faster by plane routes. Due to the fact that the transportation costs are associated with the global production, therefore, the production sites must be separated geographically at any locations where they have more economic advantages.

On the other hand, several results of the technological innovations in information and communication have also declined dramatically in the last two decades. Such development as to enable companies to create and manage its production systems which can be distributed globally might further be needed to be facilitated in the area of global production. In any case, a network of communication that spreads around the world, indeed, has become essential for many international businesses and perhaps, we can have a look at how Dell Company is using the internet to coordinate and control its global production system as an example.

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A Few Reasons Behind Why Global Institutions Were Established


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As we notice there are several international institutions out there, perhaps, we’ve been wondering why they are needed to be established with a certain purpose or objective on behalf of regulating and controlling the world’s economy. First, because of the limits of the world market and the reduction of proportion in business activities through the boundaries of the country’s state, it is required to have a global agency that can help to manage, organize, and keep an eye on the global market as a whole; promoting the establishment of multinational treaties which govern international business systems.

And then, during the last half-century, there has been several number of following global institutions which have also been established to assist in carrying out those functions such as the General Agreement in Tariff and Trade (GATT) and its successors which are the World Trade Organization ranging from The International Monetary Fund, The World Bank, and The United Nations.

Then, all those institutions established through voluntary agreements between each country and the institutional functions, additionally, have formed some sort of mutual understanding which is popularly known as the international agreements. The World Trade Organization so-called WTO, as we know, is responsible for maintaining the order of the world’s trading system by ensuring countries to be bound or obliged by the rules set from the trade agreements which are signed by the members of respective countries of the WTO.

In addition, back in the year of 2010, there were approximately 153 WTO members of countries which were collectively accounted for 90 percent of the world’s trading value; contributing the scope and huge influence for their organizations. The global institution so-called WTO (World Trade Organization) is responsible for facilitating the establishment of additional multinational agreement between members of countries as we know, and its job is also to improve the implementation of the previous decline in international trade and investment barriers. Therefore, we can simply put a remark saying that this WTO has played an important role for its members in creating global business system which seems to be more open and not hindered by trade and investment barriers between countries. 

Overall, without the world creating such an institution as the WTO, today's globalization of markets and production may not reach this far. However, we need to pay our attention that there are some negative critics as well arguing that this organization so-called the WTO have seized the national sovereignty from each member.

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Some Driving Forces of Globalization


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In theory, market globalization refers to the merging differences of historical and separate markets into one huge global of the entire market share. The collapse of barriers to cross-border of trade, in fact, has made global sales easier. It has been postulated for some time that tastes and consumer’s preferences in different countries begin to converge on the global norms, so as to help making the global market existed.

To begin with, consumer products such as credit cards (Citigroup), soft drinks (Coca-Cola), video games (Sony PlayStation), hamburgers (McDonald), coffee (Starbucks), and the IKEA furniture are often identified as the prototype of global trend. So, companies like those are more than not just a contributor on this trend, but they are also the facilitator of international business phenomenon.

Then, businesses that offer the same products all over the world have long contributed their part to create the global market. Such a company, indeed, does not have to be in a giant scale to facilitate and provide the benefits of market globalization. In United States, for example, it is nearly 90 percent of companies involved in the export activities are the small businesses which employ less than 100 people, and they are accounted for the total U.S. exports' growth over the last several decades.

In addition to that, companies with less than 500 employees on the other hand have recorded roughly around 97 percent of all U.S. exporters and nearly 30 percent of total export values. It is this characteristic actually which defines a product of high technology, so as to a few examples such as the solar panel company which is based in New York city that generates 40 percent of its annual sales (roughly around $ 3 million from exports to five different countries), B&S Aircraft Alloys – a company based in New York city which has other export values amounted to 40 percent of its annual revenue (approximately up to $ 8 million in total sales).

On top of that, the same scenario or case also applies in several other countries as well. In Germany, for example, this country is the largest exporter in the world staggering 98 percent of small and medium enterprises that have successfully penetrated international market shares; either through their exports or global productions. Although there is a global prevalence on U.S. giant corporations such as Citigroup, McDonald, Starbucks and IKEA store, however, we are advised not to force our point of view strongly in saying that national markets provide free ticket entrance to overseas markets.

There are actually some of the significant differences which are still visible at both national and regional level on the appropriate dimensions; covering consumers' tastes and choices, distributional lines, inherent cultural value system, business system, and legal system. It is because these differences often compel companies to adjust their marketing strategies, product features, and their operational implementation, so in order for them to be able to harmonize themselves with the conditions at certain countries, they must comply with the rules and regulations set by any designated export countries.

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Scope of Globalization


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Prior to discussing the entire framework of globalization, we need to be aware of the fact that there is a fundamental change taking place in the world’s economy today. We are moving away from a circumstance where a country's economy is relatively independent and separated by barriers to cross the trade and investment borders regardless of distance, time zones, languages, as well as national differences in terms of the government regulation, culture, and business systems.

Then, we are moving as well towards the new world in which the barriers to trade and investment across borders is increasingly reduced, the distance is getting closer because of technological advances in transportation and communication, whereby material culture starts to look the same all over the world, and the national economy has become dependent on a single system integrated in the global economy. Hence, the process by which this phenomenon occurs is often referred to or what we call it as globalization.

In the current global economy, an American citizen might be driving a car to go to work where the car is originally designed by Germany, being assembled in Mexico by American car companies. Similarly, some components of a car designed by Ford Company can be made in the United States, where their steels belong to Korea while the rubbers belong to Malaysia.

Assuming that an American citizen whom we take as an example is a male, then, the next illustration of scenario is that he may fill his car with petrol at the GAS STATION BP (BritishPetroleum) owned by a multinational company in United Kingdom. This petrol could have been made from the pumped oil resources off the coast from Africa by the France oil companies, then send it to the United States through the shipment company owned by Greece. He may be drinking at a drive-through coffee shop run by a Korean immigrant, as he orders a cup of coffee milk without fat along with the chocolate-coated biscuits. The main ingredient which is the coffee beans may come from Brazil and Peru, while the biscuits are made locally using the old recipes from Italy.

In other parts of the world, a Singaporean-born citizen may speak to a brokerage company using a Nokia phone which is made in Finland, getting the phone assembled in Texas using the series of chips produced from Taiwan, as it is designed by the Indian engineers who work for Texas Instruments. In fact, he could tell a stock-brokerage company to purchase some shares of Deutsche Telekom – a telecommunication company from Germany.

Then, there is an India guy who might turn on the radio where the radio is made in Japan and getting the device assembled in Malaysia; simply to listen to certain popular songs from a hip-hop group from Denmark who has signed a recording contract with music companies from France in order to do their promotion in Asia.

Then, as soon as the hip hop songs end, a radio announcer might inform to all listeners that the anti-globalization protest is taking place during the meeting at World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. After that, the announcer move on to the next topic, a news story report that talks about how the concern of rising interest rates in USA has led to Japan's Nikkei stock market index going down sharply.

So, as you can see from a simple illustration above, admit it or not this is the world we are currently living and being part of its system as a matter of fact. It is the world where the volume of goods, services, and investments across borders of countries are growing faster than the world’s output consistently for more than half a century. This is the world where roughly about $ 4 trillion of foreign exchange transactions occurred every day in which the value of $ 15 trillion goods and $ 3.7 trillion services are sold approximately across the border. It is the world where international institutions such as the World Trade Organization (the World Trade Organization – WTO) are established, the world where the material symbols and popular culture have increasingly been into a global phenomenon such as Coca-Cola, Starbucks, Sony PlayStation, Nokia cell phones, MTV, Disney, IKEA store, and Apple's first breakthrough product - Ipod.

This is the world where the products are made by specific ingredients or components which come from all over the world. After all, it is the world that we are currently residing and breathing in where the economic crisis in Asia back in somewhere 1997 / 1998 could lead to recession in United States; raising the interest rates of $US Dollar and Nikkei Japan went down in spring of 2006.

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