General Framework of Marketing
We often hear that many people talking about sales, purchases, transactions, trade, and so on. However, if the term is the same as what is meant by marketing, then there is still many of us interpret the word “marketing” in the opposite way. The result of an improper interpretation is largely occurred is because of there are many (particularly, among us) who do not know the exact definition of marketing. This gives such misunderstanding views that not only about the activities involved in the marketing field, but also about the job of a salesperson. When people talk about marketing, generally, it is questioned about request, purchase and price. And, if a salesperson or sales manager talking about marketing, then it is actually being discussed as a sale.

For a Department Store Manager, marketing is defined as the activity of retailing or merchandising. From this description, it looks like that the term marketing is actually a spoken interpretation which is limited to just one part of an overall marketing activities. Basically, the above restrictions are within the scope of the activity or the activity which is related to efforts in handing over the goods or services produced at a certain price level can give you such an advantage.

A narrow interpretation of this marketing is also addressed from the definition of “American Marketing Association” in 1960, stating that the achievement derived from marketing work is the result of business activities related to goods and services flowing out from the manufacturer up to the consumer. In addition to this interpretation, there is also a wider view which states that marketing is defined as a process that starts long before the activities of goods or materials enter into the production process. In this case, a lot of marketing decisions must be made prior to the product is generated as the effect of decisions regarding the product is being made, the target market, price, and promotion.

For example, the marketing decision can be either product such as what should be produced, whether the product should be designed, does it need to be packaged, and what brand will be used for the product. Decisions about these products should be associated with the intended target market. Similarly, regarding the plan of selling price as well as the advertising or personal selling should be done well before the goods or services produced.

Furthermore, the narrow view of marketing in common sense unfortunately has caused a lot of entrepreneurs or business world are still oriented on the production or are merely focused in the production without looking at other aspects. In fact, they simply emphasize what products can be generated, not according to what products can be marketed. Products are grown by the company, designed by technicians or engineers, processed or produced by people productions, then set the price on the basis of cost calculation by the accountant or finance, and handed over to the sales manager. Limitations in understanding of marketing has resulted in many companies experience difficulties in the continuation of their business life-growth on lately. Nevertheless, it is also because of there has been an increasing competition in the marketing of existing products.

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