Knowing Our Heart Condition
Perhaps, one of the effective ways to think of our heart and vascular system is to imagine a railroad trail figuratively. The heart, for example, is the main station (the center point) where every train must passes while arteries and veins act as the rail and tunnel (pathways through the body) which are lowering the passengers (the blood) to other stations inside the whole body. So, let’s say that if there is a severe damage on the rail, or there is some sort of nuisance occurred along the way, for sure the passengers (the blood) will be distracted. And, if let’s say that the distractions last long enough, then those distractions can create plenty of abnormal functions in our multiple organs.

Technically, when we feel our pulse beating on our skin, we tend to imagine that our heart is beating like a drum yanked in every rhythm. However, our heart really squeezes and bending to exceed the thumb movement. Speaking in a figurative way, our electrical system is basically derived from specialized cells starting on the very top of our heart and move down stimulating the heart muscles to squeeze the blood through the aortic valve. Hence, this sort of event is likely similar to when we twist a wet towel in order to squeeze the liquid out of our nose. The flow of blood which has been twisted out from our heart is then sprayed into the aorta (the largest artery in the body) that carries priceless oxygen-rich blood.

Actually, our heart has a very clever way to guarantee its own survival, so as to maintain the progress of our survivals. In fact, our heart looks after itself first before taking care of other organs. Just as a mother breastfeeding her child after she heats the food for herself, our heart naturally needs blood which must be fulfilled on the first basis, before it can fulfill its primary job which is pumping the blood throughout our body. Thus, if our body has a pension fund for our well-being in an old age, then we have to repay a small amount of deposit to every heartbeat. In other words, the better we have the ability to do it in pumping the blood through our coronary arteries, the better we live with our aging stages.

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Get to Know Our Heart Artery Disease
First of all, due to the fact that we often devote all of our attentions to our precious heart, it is strongly recommended that we have to pay our concern at least to other organs as well. Well, it is not the same as the description of the seventh-grade girls who feel the tingling in her guts when she was stunned to see a cute little boy. Candy makers will not wrap chocolate caramel in the box-shaped bladder, but rather than wrapping it in the shape of a heart. Besides, when was the last time we played this blackjack card with queen-shaped spleen? Of course, we had a good reason to play that game. So, speaking in a figurative way, this thing so-called heart is a symbol of love and courage by which it has a significant role of more than just an inspiration for songwriters, poets, tattoo artists, and the celebrity news hunters. In other words, our heart is more than just a symbol which is the life itself.

Basically, our heart is similar to the main water lines in a house of our anatomical which provides nutrients that we need. Then, inside the house (our body), clean water allows us to drink and purify our organs. So, inside our body, the heart pumps the blood flown to every room up into our brain so that we can think about the sexual organs to have children and helping us in our digestive system so that can process our food consumption.

Well, the truth is we feel this closeness and awareness of our heart compared to other organs in our body. So, we have to understand this reality since the pre-history civilization began because our heart has many advantages among other organs such as it can be felt clearly, we can feel its existence and its functions by pushing our chest or our wrist while holding our hands for a few seconds. Like a metronome in our body, measuring the heart rhythm of life and our health is the most critical thing that makes us alive. Additionally, when it comes to public-speaking and using the waiting room at the bus station, there is nothing more frightening than this fact: if we find our heart stops beating, that's when our lives end!

Talking about from medical studies, Coronary Artery Disease so-called CAD is a major disease which has been widely spread in developing countries. In fact, every American, Asian, and European citizen has 40% of chance from dying quickly due to the heart disease, whereas 50% of chance that the quality of their lives will be damaged by illness of arterial damage. In any case, the last part is a major threat because most of the people (especially, when they were young) are more worried about hangnail than death. In other words, if we realize that the damage to our arteries is much more influential than we might expect, then, the importance of our artery health will become clear. Since the damage to our artery will slower our memory in the mean time, another side effect can be disrupting the ability of other organs to function properly while this can also further interfere our sex life.

Finally, let’s say that if our heart is working properly, then for sure it will certainly be a great engine that can function efficiently. The blood vessels which supply the muscles in our body, as a matter of fact, will open up and soften like a rubber nipple on a bicycle wheel that can expand as needed. The blood vessels which leave our heart circulated throughout our body from one source to another, no matter how great our body seems, our heart is so powerful that it is able to change the level of its pumping pressures to whatever is needed for every situation we face; whether we are running on the treadmill or trying to escape from the raging flock.

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Journey to the Healthy Life
Normally, when we flip over pages of newspaper, we can read all the kinds of articles or headlines – whether they are the news about international conflict, marriage issues (e.g. divorce), and other related breaking-news about celebrities. At least for us, however, sometimes it seems that the bad health news alone gets the attention more. Every time when we turn the pages of newspaper, we may come across to read a report or story such as a famous case regarding Alzheimer's, or perhaps the number of diabetics who are increased sharply. By the way, the Americans are much more obese than the A-listed people. In the end, it all looks so pathetic that we somehow avoid the news or information about health issues, acting like the polar bears when they try to avoid the Fiji Mountain. Yes, we are now facing some seriousness of health issues which need to be discussed.

First of all, let's take a look at the average life of expectancy among the 47 year-old people back in the year of 1900 and those who were 80 years old back in the year of 2000. Most of the 30 year-old people back in those years were encouraged or supported by the public health and medical facilities. Thus, these statistics have shown that we probably could still live longer.

Perhaps, the most impressive statistical data is while the majority of the world's population thinks America is a nation of overweight people, there may be some signs of which indicate that most of them have changed their body weight. For example, in 1996, the numbers of the Americans were pre-occupied by regular physical activities which were decreased by 1% per each month. Sometimes, there are also people who think that medicine is the field which connects point to point. 

Symptoms of the disease on A and B must have the same symptoms with the disease on C. In some cases, the human body is a logical and mechanical factory which works at the same routine repeatedly. While there are some researchers as well who have found many anomalies about how our body works, workers in the factory at some point of period are taking a break or decide to do something else, even without notice or without creating disruptions. And perhaps, we do not always wonder why such issues like that happened, or even we do not really know what it all means. So, that is why there are hundreds or thousands of researchers who have devoted their lives to investigate the behavior of cells in the body of animals and humans in order to gain a better understanding about how our body works.

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Choosing Our Age
Normally, whether we look at the clock, calendar, or hour glass, one thing for sure that we notice is the fact that time does not stop. This thing so-called time, naturally, is ticking and moving at the same pace from day to day, minute to minute, and second to second. Everyone is getting older at the same speed as they turn to the day of their birth every year, so does the same thing also apply to us when it comes to the age of calendar.

However, we all have the power to turn our clock faster or slower with the lifestyle that we choose. For example, a person whose age is 50 years old who puts nicotine into his/her lungs may actually appear to have the body of 65 years-old because of the destruction which he/she does against his/her own body. And perhaps, another example could be a man whose age is 50 years old who consumes food properly, keeping his consumption away from toxic materials, and taking care of his body through the physical activity can actually have an ideal body as someone whose age is 36 years old. Therefore, in all the contents of this discussion, we will refer and talk about the term so-called Real-Age.

First of all, the Real-Age has a huge impact on our health which is caused by a certain lifestyle that we decide to choose. Well perhaps, some of us are already familiar with the concept of this thing called the Real-Age. For those who are not yet familiar with that term, this thing so-called Real-Age is basically defined as a system which shows how much the influence or the impact from the choices we have that can affect or make ourselves young and accelerating to our aging process. And of course, it does not imply that we cannot stop our aging process. It is because the triggering factor or the determining cause of it is simply based on our body which is constantly undergoing the process of aging due to the environmental factors such as through oxidation or other aging phases in our body.

Oxidation which resembles more to the process of deteriorating the pillars of our house (our body) is actually regarded as an important natural process occurred. However, if there is too much oxidation existed, then we may be prone to run the risk of aging and deteriorating process higher in our body. After all, it is this reason of why so many foods which are good for us are made with antioxidants (foods which can possibly slower our aging process).

Meanwhile, from the purely scientific point of view, we do not know exactly what might be the causes of our aging process. However, one thing that we do know and makes us feel older before the age of 60 or above is normally related and due to the factors of having a disease. Hence, this can be explained to us further that 80% of our effort in order to stop these factors lies in the terms of age-related diseases, such as:

1. Aging heart and blood vessels (they are responsible for notorious diseases such as stroke, heart attack, disappearance of memory, impotence, weakening – especially, when arteries decide to flow the nutrient-rich blood to vital organs).

2. Aging the immune system which causes infection and cancer.

3. Aging process which is caused by the environmental and social issues (accidents, stress, etc. – these are the very strong impact on the aging process).

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Controlling the Fate of Our Precious Health
When it comes to controlling our body as if there is no doctor to be found in this world, then perhaps there will be no such things as plastic surgery, laser-eye surgery, or a doctor’s difficult handwriting that cannot be read. Although there are plenty of available cures which have been made possibly by drugs manufacturers so far, however, some future sophisticated health-care facilities through the countless cutting-edge research will someday be able to heal any incurable diseases instantly.

Talking about from medical perspectives, the doctors will definitely be the first to explain to us that they cannot prevent us from heart disease, cannot explain whether we should apply sun lotions before drying ourselves at the beach or perhaps, they cannot suggest how many of the Oreo pieces we should eat before we swallow them through our esophagus. Well, the truth is we can actually control the destiny of our healthiness. If we want to take a look at how Lance Armstrong did it back in 1996, this cycling champion was getting test results which were revealed that he was suffering from testicular cancer that had been spread both: to his lungs and his brain.

So, by having the chance of survival proven which was less than 50% according to medical assumptions that time, Armstrong then underwent multiple surgeries and aggressive form of chemotherapy to cure his cancer. Well, even though Lance Armstrong underwent these medical tests while he was lying weak, however, through the combination of medical care facilities, Armstrong still carried on his own determination and gained the support from his closest people who had given him the strength to fight and beat his cancer.

As he later became the world’s cycling champion who broke the record of six times winning the Tour de France tournament, however, the most important thing which we can learn from his inspiring health-story is that firstly, Lance Armstrong continuously received the help as well as the motivation from millions of others. Because of this, he ended up contemplating some profound advice regarding why being healthy is extremely important. Secondly, we can also learn that while we cannot always control what happens to us, there are several things which can be controlled: attitude, determination, and willingness to take responsibility for our own health.

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The Significance of Maintaining Our Healthy Body
Figuratively, a person body tattooed attracts people's attention. Some celebrity bodies are staked out by paparazzi, being gossiped on tabloids, and insinuated by talk show host at midnight. An event of how informative commercial exhibited is simply to promise on how people can make their body more beautiful (Losing 200 kg with a revolutionary tummy slimming cream!). And even today, what actually matters is there is a defect of body occurred which plays one crucial role as the main actors among celebrities: plastic surgery reality show.

There is no doubt that in United States, it has been emphasized the fact that a beautiful body can stimulate the economy as well as the hormones. We all admire a human body because of the pits; the moving curves, seductive angles, and the ability to make ratings of any television program soared. However, our obsession with the outer skin perhaps does ignore the importance of everything that moves, shuffle, and something that is hitting behind it. Because there are many people have developed views on the human body so as to shallow, it is through this topic we will step back and look deeper into places where only surgeons, MRI machines, and the scale of tape-worm can be seen: inside of the body in us. Why? Because what goes on in our body is what gives us the ability to view, run, kiss, sex, feed the baby, create dinosaurs, surfing, solving problems in algebra, tying shoelaces, humming the top 40 song, and do the thousands of different things which we normally perform every day. After all, our body gives us life so as to consider that our body is life. Even if we get to understand many functions of our body, however, we probably or really do not know how our body is functioning and more importantly, how do we make it stronger, healthier, and younger.

Perhaps, the reason why we do not know how our body functions maybe it is caused by the issues of complex media and scientific jargon which competes against our brain capacity. Such reports, data, and recommendations which are flowing so fast, we barely have time to identify them as we let alone to understand what the purpose behind from of all these information. The results of those information flooded has given the fact that finding the important health news is almost as easy to find a kernel of corn in the soil. Then, in order to understand the seeds of information which we can apply in our own lives such as the necessary excavation, perseverance, and time (not to mention some of the fortress to protect ourselves from all the craps out there), however, what is important for our health and our lives is the fact that we have the castle of information already.

So, for that, we need to consider our body as a house, as a home. Both home and our body are equally an important investment. They provide protection for private property enormously and both are the places which we want to protect with all of our strength. So, this is the big picture that we need to keep in mind.

On the contrary, let’s say if we want to explore them further with comparisons, then we will get to understand the relationship between the organs of our body in a better way. Our bones are basically the vital means of support system in protecting the inner structure of our home: our eyes are the windows, our lungs are the pipelines and ventilation, our brains are the switched box, the contents of our stomach are the system of plumbing, our mouth is the manager of food, our heart is the main water, our hair is the lawn, and our butt is to junk unnecessarily what we have saved in a small attic on the roof where our installation has been nagging us to immediately get rid of it (in other words, taking a s**t out of our body).

So again, by returning to the above analogy of a house structure, we need to take the same approaches to the maintenance and improvement of our body as we do in our home. We would not call a handyman if we happened to see a bit of the overflowing water from the plumbing. Surely, we would at least attempt to vacuum the sewers, lift the back of the toilet, and try to repair the damage by ourselves. 

We would not call an insect-expert to repel a fly if we saw it in our kitchen. We would not call an electrician if the light bulb went off. It is because we believe in ourselves to take control over our house, since we know that it is cheaper to prevent a problem and resolve it when it is still small, rather than letting things deteriorated to the point where our house requires a thorough check (medical assistance) constantly in order to continue how it can still be functioning properly.

So, in the end, we want to be comfortable with our own body so that we will feel confident with its basic maintenance, so as to avoid the things which cause a lot of damages such as an accident. After all, we want to feel comfortable and confident so that we can do things that can support the best maintenance of our body which is worth investing in the long-term for our health.

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Global Financial Market
In the majority of developing countries, it is clear that banking institutions have become the dominant preference of gathering funds. Perhaps, this is because the capital markets in the most developing states are not well developed yet. In addition to the context of capital market becoming as a dominant preference in the most developing countries, banking institutions have long been known to carry out an activity of providing loans or savings. Although the participation of a country's government to some extent does not appear dominant in the eye of global financial markets, however, private institutions which are actively performing in the overseas market do contribute the growing development of our banking world.

1. European Money Market
Generally, Euro currency is commonly used in the European money market that consists of commercial banks in which they facilitate short-term funds in different currencies. Medium-term loans offered in a duration of more than a year in this money market is known as Euro credit along with its interest based on the reference of LIBOR (London Inter-Bank Offered Rate) plus.

At the beginning of 1960s, the United States was in shortage of equity in the international bond market which resulted US dollar currency denominated . Even worse, the Euro bond which was largely issued at the same time further aggravated the denomination on the rate of US dollar, though the Germany's Deutch and other currencies from European countries were also less demanded due to the impact of US dollar becoming widely accepted as the standard parameter of global exchange rates.

2. International Capital Markets
As part of the outcome of functional needs, the emergence of capital market established in general is to provide the funding access of equity to private or public institutions, either for investment purpose or business development concern. As of today, the capital market has grown not only in the developed countries, but also in the developing countries.

Then, several developed countries such as Japan, America, and United Kingdom up to the 1990s had relatively owned the largest portion of stock market. So, when we talk about some future prospects of capital market, we cannot deny that its establishment in some developing countries will continue to experience rapid growth due to the lack of funding access. After all, an increased level of foreign investors’ preferences to diversify their portfolios by allocating their funds generated from the capital market has grown massively compared to the past.

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General Pattern of International Money Market
Historically, the activity of banking expansions within financial industries began to emerge since the period of World War II. In fact, such an expansion of international trade had increased hand in hand back in 1950s. While the establishment of companies that went globally back in 1960s had encouraged other international financial activities and services came on surface, the process of merging European Union currencies can be traced back within the system of one single currency since 1st January 1999 and the general framework of international money market will be explained shortly in the next following discussion.

1. Monetary Base
In terms of monetary based development as a major transaction, money has long and essentially become a financial instrument in human business activities. The traditional means of conservative payment which was first known as the barter system, historically, had been shifted by the progress of various changes in business transactions. Even at this moment, the means of carrying out any business transactions have already led to the myriads of alternative payment method without using cash or paper money.

As we know, money has a vital function as the means of exchange and transactions which determine the value of goods and services offered, and it has become a critical aspect in terms of cost production which further makes the importance of banking system more institutionally important. So, under the mechanism of monetary base, the concepts of paper money can be defined accordingly with their functions. The influence of money on the development of business activities, additionally, is very correlated with the demand and supply regulated according to the economic situation occurred in a country.

Technically, any business activities carried out will definitely require a certain amount of money as the primary tool of doing transactions. The Central Bank and other banking systems, as a matter of fact, can greatly affect how the distribution of money being supplied and produced in a society. The interaction of the balance in supply and demand has a significant impact on the interest rates, economic growth, and the fluctuation of prices of goods and services regulated by a country’s government. Because of this, both the Central Bank and other banking systems involved have the ability to affect how the money is being supplied and produced. So, the monetary policy regulated is very crucial for the Central Bank and other banking systems to control the amount of money being supplied with specific targets, since the excessive amount of money being produced at the same time will potentially incur such an unforeseen rate of growing inflation.

2. Monetary System
By theorythe monetary system consists of authority and the banking mechanism. In order to manage the monetary system of a country, the primary financial authority known as the Central Bank is established along with the needs of other financial systems within banking industries. To put it in a simple explanation, the core task of the Central Bank is to achieve and maintain the stability of the exchange rate over the weak currency in a country against the strong one under the supervision of a country’s minister of finance. Nevertheless, the Central Bank has the main task of controlling and implementing a monetary discretion by ensuring the smooth running process of any payment systems, as well as organizing and monitoring other institutional banks.

Moreover, when we look at the framework of monetary policy, the Central Bank can affect the amount of money supplied through the discretion of its policy in accordance to the level of interestsexchange rates, banking regulations, minimum reserves of banking deposits, and the operations of free market structure. Besides, this Central Bank cannot just put its influence directly because of its nature of being as an independent financial institution, where the main function through its monetary policy implemented is merely to control the stability of inflation rate and a country’balance of payment.

Perhaps, such a tight policy of monetary discretion can give a positive impact on a country’s balance of payment as well as price stability. However, it can also affect the real sector and economic growth the other way round. For example, if the policy regulated is too loose, then, it can possibly trigger a negative impact on a country’s balance of payment and inflation. Similarly, if there are positive rules and regulations put on the real sector within a country, then the outcome from these policies can be simulated beneficially. Hence, any decisions of monetary policy regulated by the Central Bank must be enacted wisely, since the impact of any decisions made will affect a country’s whole balance of payment, price stability, and economic growth either in a positive or negative way.

3. Capital Markets (Stock Exchange)
The term capital market by theory is commonly defined as a place to trade financial instruments or securities both in the form of private equity and bonds offered by government and private companies. In fact, this capital market has become the effective means of gathering the amount of money’s supply and demand for many years. There is a fundamental difference between the capital market and the stock exchange regulator, in which the capital market will take place when securities such as companies’ stocks and bonds are being traded while the stock exchange regulator on the contrary will act as the third party that organizes and provides the means of reconciling the supply of financial securities such as bonds, commercial papers, shares, futures, derivatives, and so on.

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International Monetary Systems
Basically, there are various international monetary systems which are commonly known such as the gold standards, the fixed exchange rates, the floating exchange rates, and the foreign exchange alternatives. In addition to the standard system of exchange rate, there is also a combination of numerous floating system between the controlled exchange rate and the applied system package.

1. Gold Standard
The two traditional concepts in connection to the currency convertibility are first, the value of currency is inscribed in the nominal value which is equal to the intrinsic value. Secondly, the value of currency is inscribed in the face of nominal value itself in which it may have nothing to do with the figure of intrinsic value.

In the case of gold standards, the basic principle of this system is that the value of currency is determined by the nominal value of gold, the flow of exports and imports figure, and the monetary authority which reserves the possession of gold or paper money over their life cycles. For example, the parity figure of exchange rate in the United Kingdom one ounce of pure gold may cost £4.5 while in America is at $20.75. This means that £1 = USD $4.61 (20.75/4.5). Therefore, each country can determine the price of its gold whether the country is either willing to buy or sell at those level of prices.

2. Fixed Standard Rate
Unlike the gold standards mechanism, the pattern of fixed standard rate is identical to the Bretton Woods system which implements the dollar-gold standard. In fact, the value of the exchange rate under this system is maintained by an intervention of the Central Bank in a country. For example, in United States, the foreign exchange market in selling or buying other currencies is by using the American dollar. In this case, the intervention of a country’s Central Bank depends on the demand and supply of dollars flown in United States' market, which leads to the deviate exchange rate from par value. So, in this system, the dollar needed for an intervention can be obtained by exchanging gold in the Treasury Department at a constant price (e.g. USD $35 per ounce).

Overall, the standard fixed rate is more of the government's commitment to maintain the exchange rate of their country’s currency at a certain level. So, the Central Bank will be actively pulling or releasing the reserved currency at the time when it gets depreciated (decreased) or appreciated (increased). Due to the impact of currency convertibility is inevitably linked with the inflation rate, hence, the consideration of overcoming the uncertain inflation rate becoming considerably important as a determining factor to this fixed exchange rate mechanism.

3. Floating Exchange Rate
In the system of a free-floating standard, an exchange rate is determined by an interaction of supply and demand of currencies. In fact, the balanced value of the new exchange rate figure is influenced by many variables, both economically and politically. For example, the result of the Smithsonian agreement back in 1971 was the gold price per one once rose to USD $38 (devaluation of the American dollar amounted to 7.9%). Then, the extended fluctuations of par value rose to 2.5% and had increased up to USD $42.2. As a result, the current figure of US dollar which constantly rises cannot be dammed. In other words, the system of floating exchange rate appears to have a critical failure over its functional implementations.

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Global Currency Classifications
From the global financial viewpoints, currency convertibility technically shows a level of flexibility of a currency to be converted into another currency where there is no magnitude of obstacles occurred in transferring any currencies in and out of the home country. As it is separated into the strong and weak categories, we can simply distinguish them by the rule of thumb that the strong category is usually the currency of developed countries while the weak one is often from the developing nations. The concept of this currency convertibility, actually, is the important basis and foundation for the establishment of the international monetary system. And in general, the strong and the weak currency are differentiated as follows:

1. Strong Currencies
- The characteristic of a strong currency is widely accepted as the proof or the means of payment in international transactions. In fact, it is also known as the hard currency because it has a relatively stable value in which it often gets increase (appreciated) against other currencies. A strong currency is an important basis in drawing up the international monetary system, and that includes several popular currencies such as the United States Dollars (USD$), United Kingdom Pounds (£), Japanese Yen (¥), and the Germany Deutsche Mark (DM).

2. Weak Currencies
- While the strong currencies are widely accepted as the tool of international payment, the weak currencies on the other hand cannot be widely accepted as the means of global payment in the international business transactions. Having said that, the weak currency is also known as the soft currency because it has a relatively unstable where its value often gets declined (depreciated) against other currencies. And perhaps, some of the weak currencies which are globally known are the currency from the typical socialist countries in Eastern Europe and the currency from a few developing countries such as Indonesia Rupiah (IDR), Philippine Peso, Thailand Bath, Malaysia Ringgit (RM), and so on.

Meanwhile, the role of the American currency in exchange rate has a very large impact to stabilize the international monetary system as a whole. The dominant role of this American currency can be traced in certain stages which are carried out back in the time of restoration in Europe through the Marshall Plan.

During the time of having the Bretton Woods Conference, the systems used were identical to the fixed rates of the dollar-gold standard. In any case, the US effort contributed back in the time of the Smithsonian approval was primarily focused on dealing with the introduction of a fraught system in regards to the economic uncertainty.

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