Basic Examples of Trading Charts
By far, the three types of standard charts used in the area of technical analysis are the line chart, the bar chart, the point and figure. In each case, the type of chart chosen to record price activity is determined by the amount of information available and the purpose of chart utilization. Anyway, the line and the bar chart will only be discussed in this topic since the third one (the point and figure) is quite complicated for me to further outline or disentangle it in details.

1. Line Chart
A line chart by its function connects a series of data points with a line and it is used by traders to monitor closing prices. Besides, a line chart gives traders a clear visualization of where the price of a security has traveled over a given time period. Due to the fact that a line chart can only show closing prices, therefore, it does reduce noises from less critical times in the trading day such as the open, high and low. Since the closing prices are typically considered as the most important part, it is understandable to see why a line chart is popular with investors and traders.

Example of a Line Chart

2. Bar Chart
A bar chart by definition is a style of chart used by some technical analysts on which the top of the vertical line indicates the highest price of a security is traded during the day,  whereas the bottom line represents the lowest price. And additionally, the closing price is displayed on the right side of the bar while the opening price is shown on the left side of the bar.

Technically, a single bar represents one day of trading. It is the most popular type of chart used in technical analysis in which the visual representation of the price activity over a given period of time is used to spot both trends and patterns. Actually, a bar charts is considered to be very similar to Japanese candlestick charts with the exception of the bodies not being filled on bar charts. After all, a bar chart is often regarded as the Western version of candlesticks and it is best used to observe the contraction and expansion of price ranges during the market trends.

Example of a Bar Chart

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Important Elements of the Loan Costs : Origination Fee, Discount Points, and Junk Fee
1. Origination Fee
Obviously, you must have known by now that the cost of a loan incurred in the real estate transaction appears to be as significant as the interest rate charged. Besides, both lenders and mortgage brokers impose charges on various fees for giving us a loan which in our sense perhaps, we thought that they simply aim to earn money from them. Traditionally, the most expensive part of a loan package is the loan origination fee. The fee is usually expressed in points which is a percentage of the loan amount borrowed. For example, if a lender charges 1 point origination fee on the $100,000 loan, then we would pay 1% or $1,000 as a fee.

2. Discount Points
Following the origination fee, another built-in-profit making is the charging of discount points where lenders will offer lower interest rates as the upfront payment. Given as an example, if we wish our interest rates to be lower, then we can ‘buy down’ the rates by paying ½ percent or more of the loan up front. So, buying down the rates will only make sense if we plan on keeping our loans in a long time otherwise it will be merely a waste of money.

In today’s presence, borrowers are getting smarter as they try to beat the banks at their own game by refusing to pay the points or percentage. Surprisingly, some of the banks nowadays also begin to advertise ‘no cost loans’, in which they are loans with no discount points or origination fees. Again, we have to keep in mind that buying down the percentage rate will only be sensible if we can keep our loan in a long period.

3. Junk Fee
Of course, the lower interest rate charged with our loans, the better off we are, right?! However, even without points (percentage) and at par (no mark up fee on the interest rate), still, there is no such thing as a non-cost loan. For this case, it is essential that we must learn the characteristics of some lenders who try to sneak in their profits by disguising other fees, namely in these following transactions:

a. Administrative Review

b. Underwriting Charge

c. Documentation Fee

As you can see, the above charges are given with a certain type of fancy names, but they are merely the ways of how lenders making more profits or money. In one particular aspect, lenders actually do pay their actual fees such as the cost of obtaining credit reports, courier charges and other miscellaneous fees. Hence, by understanding that lenders are obviously in business to make money when a loan offered sounds incredibly good to be true, then we are strongly advised to have a look carefully at their details of fees and charges in the first place.

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Daily Smoking Habit
In general, the content of a cigarette has a lot of terrible influences over the human body. The typical habit of daily smoking, in fact, can aggravate the functions of kidney organs in a more severe manner. According to the National Kidney Foundation's on its website, firstly, it is reported that smoking can interfere with the productive effect of drugs used to treat someone’s hypertension. Besides, the habit of every day smoking can also slow down the blood stream circulation to the kidneys and therefore, it can further worsen the existing condition of a person who suffers from kidney disease.

Secondly, based on the data retrieved from the National Kidney and Urological Diseases Information Clearinghouse – NKUDIC, it is also revealed that the habit of daily smoking can increase the risk of cancer and kidney failure. This is because from medical viewpoint, the excessive amount of a cigarette intake can reduce mono-amine oxidize B (MAO – B); an enzyme which promotes health in all parts of the human body. Owing to the fact that the main content of any cigarette produced is famous for its nicotine substance, thus, if it is regularly consumed in a long time period, some of the vital organs such as lungs, skins, heart, kidneys, etc. will be damaged significantly.

Finally, to someone who has the habit of smoking on a daily basis is six times greater of experiencing a dangerous risk of kidney failure than those who are regarded as passive smokers (people who do not smoke at all). Although the amount of nicotine contained in every stick of a cigar is seemingly capable enough of releasing the oxidation stress, however, the level of its harmfulness can potentially trigger the blood pressure accelerated up to 20 ml/hg. After all, the oxidation stress is defined as the tissue damage occurred due to the higher levels of anti-oxidants in the human’s body. Therefore, for those who are typically heavy smokers, they are prone to be affected gradually by the accumulated amount of nicotine consumed which in turn, it will lead them to have a high level of blood pressure (hypertension).

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Bad Sleeping Patterns
Firstly, sleeping is a normal process which is commonly regarded as part of the human beings’ nature. Unfortunately, the typical sleeping patterns nowadays become irregular to some people; there are those who experience troubles of sleeping early at night, while there are also others who enjoys sleeping in the excessive amount of time. Having said that, most people nowadays are not fully aware of certain potential risks associated with the less amount of resting period, since it can certain damages to their body cells which will lead them to the exposure of suffering from an illness or physical injuries.

Secondly, a wide variety of exhausting and stressful activities can absolutely cause people’s conditions to be more severe. Having a lack of bed time, for example, will only aggravate the state of their bodies. As a result, their body cells end up not working optimally; leading them to suffer from other diseases compared to those who have a sufficient amount of sleeping time.

Thirdly, trouble sleeping through the night can further trigger another potential health hazard such as having a heart attack by as much as 45% higher. In fact, those who do not sleep soundly are prone to have a heart attack risk which is 30% higher than those who sleep with snores. Nevertheless, for those who often find themselves feeling rather sore in the morning within a week, it also proves their probability of having a heart attack about 27%.

Meanwhile, although there are no clear evidences which support the real causes of the above figures, some medical experts however were previously commissioned to perform their study where they claimed that people who possess those sort of sleeping disorders are more prone to have higher risks of suffering from a heart attack. Despite, another condition of trouble sleeping at night so-called “Insomnia” can potentially lead to the occurrence of hypertension (blood pressure). The problem with a lack of sleep, for example, is often considered as the main cause of car accidents while commuting. As we know, such fatal accidents can lead people to face a potential death. Therefore, for those who are frequently on the roads, they are highly advised to have a proper amount of rest since it will help them reduce the number of car accidents recorded on the streets. 

Finally, too much sleeping is not very advisable on the other hand. Well, the reason is because having an excessive amount of rest can trigger several health issues further, notably diabetes. In regards to the issue of people suffering from diabetes due to their excessive sleeping hours, well, there was a study conducted with 9.000 Americans where the findings showed an intimate connection between over sleeps and the chances of suffering from diabetes.

According to the results found, basically, it was reported that people who slept more than 9 hours per night had a 50% greater risk of developing diabetes compared to those who only rest 4 hours at night. Besides, a person who experienced a lengthy sleeping period also had the potential for developing obesity which could trigger the occurrence of other harmful diseases. Therefore, those who sleep 9 or 10 hours at night have the possibility of suffering from obesity 21% higher compared to the ones who have a proper sleeping pattern for 7 to 8 hours.

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Political System – Individualism
By philosophy, the belief of individualism states that every individual should have their absolute freedom in attempts to obtain political and economic goals. In fact, the objective of this political belief emphasizes that the interests of an individual should be taken and prioritized beforehand more than anything else. As it does with collectivism/socialism, the origin of this political viewpoint can be traced from the philosopher of an ancient Greek named Plato Aristotle (384 – 322 BC).

According to Plato Aristotle, first of all, he argued that a private ownership ultimately belongs to an individual as the sole owner. In various parts of contemporary political speeches which embraced the free-market ideology, Aristotle stated that a private property is more effective than a shared ownership property as it will continue to stimulate a future improvement in a long period. Simply put, the joint business venture will have its owner to deal with a little bit of business acumen while the sole proprietary run by an individual will have the greatest impact of business expertise which can be very productively exercised forward.

Going back to the issue topic of individualism belief, it was historically born as the result of an influence from political philosophy adopted in the United Kingdom and Netherlands during the 16th century. After that, it was later corrected by numbers of other notable philosophers from the United Kingdom such as David Hume (1711 – 1776), Adam Smith (1723 – 1790), and John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873).

The impact of individualism has given a tremendous impact over the colonial Americans who fought for the independence of their country’s allies, especially the United Kingdom. Perhaps, this might be one of the reasons why the theoritical concepts and the idea of individualistic belief were implied in the American Declaration of Independence. After all, back in the 20th century, several Nobel Prize winners were all the economic experts, notably Milton Friedman, Friedrich Von Hayek, and James Buchanan.

Moreover, such theoretical basis or approach in individualism is fundamentally built upon two principles. The first principle is the attention put on the importance of absolute guarantee over an individual’s freedom and self expression, whereas the second principle namely the prosperity of society can be best accomplished by letting the people to pursue their personal interests of economy. Therefore, the core message that lies in the doctrine of individualism is generally referred to the basic rules of political and economic freedom of an individual, and they should be applied as a cornerstone of regulations exercised in a community.

On the other hand, such a favorable impact of individualism renders a defense to the economic system of democracy and free market economy. Since the gradual development of socialism which became slightly more popular in the late of 1980s, thus, the ideal form of democracy and free market economy had swept the doctrine of communist ideology in socialism in many countries in the following period.

Meanwhile, such changes occurred over the last 20 years had exceedingly surpassed the numbers of nationwide revolutions, notably in several states of Eastern Europe and the former states of Soviet Union; including some historical records of political movement in several countries of Latin America as well as in other parts of Western Europe such as the United Kingdom and Sweden. Of course, these series of revolutionized footprints do not imply a certain claim saying that individualism appeared to have won numbers of lengthy wars against the doctrine of collectivism/socialism. Rather, it is because a free market to operate without having any direct intervention and monitoring from government may lead to further unprecedented consequences. 

For example, the storm of financial crisis back in 2008 and 2009 in the United States could be the right example to illustrate the dark side of a free market economy. Since there was an absence of strong government intervention involved at that time, some of the companies in America consequently had been declared bankrupted all because they were blinded by their greed and their pursuit of profit which ignored the conceptual value of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the first place.

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Political System – Socialism
By theory, the idea of modern socialism was first proposed by the Germany philosopher named Karl Marx (1818 – 1883), though the origin of his conceptual idea in socialism might have already existed many years ago. So, when it comes to discussing his modern theory of socialism, he basically argued that some of the economic benefits would occur in a capitalist society as long as they did not restrict an individual's liberty and rights. In other words, he practically believed that a successful capitalist system which also implemented the political system of socialism could possibly be accomplished or work perfectly side by side as long as the salary received among the majority of employees in a capitalist society had been pressed up to the lowest point as possible.

Historically, at the beginning of 20th century, the socialist idea was divided into two large-scale groups. The Communist militants, firstly, believed that socialism could only be achieved through violence, revolution, and the totalitarian dictatorship while the Social Democrats (social democratic party), secondly, argued that to establish socialism through democracy could only be achieved by a strong degree of commitment (not through the violence, revolution, and the dictatorship). Consequently, both versions of these socialism theories later evolved and disappeared in the end of 20th century.

When we look at several historical footprints during the 20th century, the socialism belief according to the communist versions achieved its peak in the late 1970s when the majority of the world's populations were living in the communist countries. At that time, nations which were ruled dominantly by the communist party including the former states of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and their allies, their practical beliefs of communism were declined by the mid of 1990s.

Following the decline of communism belief in the mid of 1990s, the entire country of Soviet Union collapsed and was scattered to 15 different nations which gradually began to have adopted a democratic system. Nevertheless, the biggest revolution back in 1989 ultimately swept the communists from Eastern Europe. Although China is still nominally regarded as the communist state with substantial limits of individual political freedom, however, the country seems to have ostensibly abandoned the rigid obedience against communist ideology in terms of economic perspectives.

On the other hand, social democracy also had once passed its peak period, even though its basic ideology proved to be sustainable longer than communism. Perhaps, the social democracy may have its greatest influence in many Western democratic states such as Australia, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Sweden where their political parties are practically powerful.

In addition, there are also countries where their political course of social democracy provide a significant influence towards the other nations including India and Brazil. Again, if it is referred to the consistency of Karl Marx's theoretical argument, we can practically conclude that many social democratic countries began to commence nationalizing their private-owned companies in a certain industry after the World War II; turning those enterprises into the running state-owned corporations for the sake of gaining "public goodness" rather than personal gain. However, many of the previous track records in the past showed that a state ownership over the means of production appeared to be contrary against public interest. Other than that, the government-owned companies in different countries have a poor business performance.

Finally, when a private-owned enterprise manages to overcome a certain number of problematic government-owned companies which were under-performing, some of the issues addressed still remain unsolved. Especially, in the economic growth sector where rapid expansion of industrialization would be greatly useful to uplift a country’s economic growth through its provision of employment and infrastructure development. In any case, it might be better to keep it in mind that some of the welfare purposes are not always reachable through a private-owned organization.

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Tips of Handling Stress
Sometimes, just when we plan to consider having our own stress management program, we tend to occupy our mind with anxiety unnecessarily in the first place. Well, instead of freezing in the path of pessimism whether we could effectively manage our stress or vice versa, it would be well-advised to have a bit of fun in organizing the above plan. Needless to say, let’s try to give ourselves a week as a start, just to gather our full attention and focus on some of the practical solutions that can assist us in overcoming a stumbling block (a source of stress) in our lives.

1. Frequently late?
If it is immensely difficult for you to come on time, then you should apply some principles of time management appropriately. Consider our priorities first (particularly, be sure to take time and look after ourselves first), delegate tasks, and throw away unnecessary things. On top of that, map our day, segment it bit by bit, set aside time for various tasks such as writing a bill or making a phone call. If we are too optimistic to be punctual, let’s try to consistently give ourselves an extra fifteen minutes or more to reach our destination. In case if a delay comes from our own consequences, be considerate and wise enough to respond to the underlying problems. Are we worried about what will happen after we start working or attending social events, for example? Or perhaps, it is all due to our own faults to the point where we try to burden ourselves with too many unnecessary tasks on a day-to-day basis.

2. Often get angry or irritated quickly?
Try to think of the bright side of a problem that we encounter. For example, when dealing with an issue, do we often judge and take a conclusion recklessly? Well, it might be best suggested to take our time to stop then breathe, breathe, and breath. So, once we feel inner peace inside (our tension has been cooled down), then we can think of a solution to solve our dilemma with calm mind.

3. Not sure of our own ability to do something? (Low level of Self-Esteem)
Do not try to do it by ourselves alone. If it comes to a matter of employment issue, then it will be better to talk and share with our co-workers or even our boss for personal support. Also, we can go and ask a knowledgeable friend of ours or contact any local library or social organization that can provide the information we need. Write down any other ways that allows us to get our answers or skills that we need. Play a tape, open a book, or create a group discussion if we need further guidance. After all, these types of work suggestions will be as effective as when we attempt to study the relaxation response techniques.

4. Too much to do?
It is better and will always be better if we can manage to finish our first commissioned task before moving on to a new one. Hiring a cleaning service, shop the goods or items through the utilization of an internet service, hold a family gathering to consider who can carry out a particular job, or give our kids some additional allowances for doing house work or cleaning the yard. After all, we better consider what is really important and should be implemented immediately instead of pending a task.

5. Feeling intense or anxious easily?
Well, we better try a massage or self-massage such as a hot bath, doing couple of light exercises, running, swimming, etc. Basically, almost every type of exercise such as brisk walking, sprinting, and climbing stairs will be helpful to calm our mind. This is because any physical activity which is done regularly can eliminate tension inside our body naturally, which is one of the techniques of relaxation response.

6. Often being pessimistic? (Negative Thinking)
Better keep reminding ourselves about the value of being optimistic. Do some practices to reduce our cognitive distortions through a physical exercise. Perhaps, we can also eradicate it by watching funny movies and read some hilarious books such as comics. So, try to list down a wide range of fun activities that can entertain us. In case if the list seems too short, then try to strengthen our social coverage (friends, families, neighbors) and most importantly, do not forget to make ourselves more productive every single day.

7. Feeling lonely?
Create and establish healthy relationships with others. Even a brief encounter such as a quick chit-chat with other people while lining up behind a checkout counter when we do our shopping, sharing or exchanging stories about our personal experiences with neighbors, asking questions to our colleagues, friends or lecturers because all these activities can literally help us melt the ice inside ourselves. Despite, another useful way is to attend religious events. Call a friend or any of our relatives whom we have not contacted for so long. If we happen to experience a social phobia, low level of self-esteem, or even severe depression to some extent which practically can doom our desires to get along well with other people, then go and get ourselves more assistance. After all, the world that we live in is full of interesting people and it is even more amazing if we can share the pieces of fun part of our lives with others.

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Relaxation Response Techniques
When talking about certain techniques of relaxation response, perhaps, we could imagine the picture of Zen priests who was drowned deeply in his meditation at a high place of Himalayas. Being able to reach a deep state of meditation, indeed, is an integral part of many spiritual practices performed in the world and traditions of belief, but to study several techniques of relaxation response does not necessarily require a long period and solid obedience.

Sometimes, to perform such techniques of relaxation response simply takes a little practice and self-willingness to spare some precious time in each day. There are many different ways to do them actually, for example, we can find the one that is most suitable and best fitted for us through the combination of some alternative methods. Hence, below here are some of the examples of relaxation techniques used to reduce stress in our daily lives.

a. Breathing Diaphragm
Under this method, the procedure goes by trying to take a deep breath, exhale it, and inhale it again. As we all know, breathing is something priceless, yet, most of us do not realize the value of being alive when we still breathe unconsciously. It actually controls the way of how our body absorbs oxygen essentially so that we can focus our attention on important things. What’s more, we can also let our mind to be controlled at the same time as long as we have the ability to adjust the depth and rhythm of our breathing. Therefore, many people throughout history still consider breathing as a vital bridge between the human mind and body. It is this reason behind why breathing plays a central part in the mind-body exercises such as yoga and meditation.

Apart from that, one of the stress response techniques is the rapid and shallow breathing. By consciously reversing our upper chest breathing pattern to diaphragmatic mode, we can actually crash the things that cause us to suffer from an overload stress. Hence, by learning to breathe diaphragmatically, here are some of the useful steps which we can follow and practice them at home:

Step Number #1
- Find a comfortable and quiet place to sit or lie down.

Step Number #2
- Place one of our hands on our chest and the other one on our abdomen just below the navel. After that, take a breath slowly and deeply in turn. Nevertheless, the lower hand should move more than the upper hand on the chest.

Step Number #3
- Try to concentrate on letting our abdomen stretched fully by inhaling the air into our lungs. Also, try to pay attention to our stomach up and down movement while we are breathing.

Step Number #4
- Do this breathing relaxation for several minutes.

b. Meditation
By definition, meditation in general is referred to an activity that makes our attention focused at the moment. It simply aims to direct our concentrations our voices, words, visions, or even our breath into one single focus. After all, there are two basic approaches to this meditation: one is concentrated meditation (centrally focused) and the other one is mindfulness meditation.

Firstly, the concentrated meditation is focusing on the breath, an image, or mantra to calm our mind. This type of meditation, in fact, engages our consciousness and opens our attention to be aware of the taste and feelings without literally being involved in them. In other words, we just have to watch everything happens, as this particular technique of relaxation response can also be manifested in various forms such as repetitive prays and words focusing.

Secondly, mindfulness meditation in which it is historically derived from an ancient Buddhist practice which can deliver a state of calmness and tranquility to an individual. And obviously, there is no need to surprised with the fact that our world today is brimmed with multitasking activities where we sometimes and even often are being asked to struggle with some of the heavy things at once.

Of course, being capable of handling multi-tasks is sometimes very helpful at one point. However, to perform multitasking, regularly always prompts us to race our mind urgently, in which the outcome tends to bother our mind to ponder over it unconsciously instead of prompting us to be fully aware of our present situations. Therefore, the ultimate objective of this relaxation technique is to teach us living in the present with gratitude and having our mind set to experience and appreciate every priceless moment gifted in our lives.

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.

Common Factors & General Causes of Stress
Out of these following events, which one do we think that perhaps will make people feeling stressed the most: losing a job, winning a lottery, buying a house, getting promoted at work, or gaining a huge personal achievement? If we can guess, then we might have the right answer to that question topic.

Actually, whenever we happen to feel depressed, it is always rooted in our response to changes. So, whether the changes are in a matter of keeping our physical body safe, or something intangible like they are almost invisible to us; dealing with stress can be of a reaction to our physical, mental, and emotional state which can occur both in a short term and long term period.

In the past, there were once two psychiatrists at the University of Washington who happened to design a scale of psychological measurement to determine how this stress can be a major cause of severe life conditions. While there are as many as 43 causes listed out there which probably do not really concern most of us ostensibly, however, they could be attributed predominantly as the major factors behind why people tend to suffer greatly because of stress.

1. The death of spouse

2. Divorce

3. Farewell / Parting

4. Imprisonment

5. The death of family members / relatives

6. Injury & Disease

7. Broken Marriage

8. Redundancy / Employment Sack

9. Wedding Cost

10. Retirement

Apart from the above list, there are also some categories that can help us identify specifically certain warnings and typical manifestations of chronic stress. So, once we get to realize how this stress can makes us feel ruined and despaired, then we can apply some coping strategies suggested in the next following discussions to help us manage our stress better.

Meanwhile, the sign of early stress can easily be noticed and denoted in various forms. This however does not necessarily mean that it is always associated directly with physical pain. Hence, the following list below are some of the most common issues which are associated with physical symptoms of the chronic stress:

- Muscle stiffness or tightness

- Back pain

- Headache

- Insomnia

- Fatigue

- Rapid heartbeat

- Trembling

- Sweating

- Ringing in the ears

- Dizziness or fainting

- Abdominal pain & nausea

- Difficult to sleep well

- Loss of sex appeal, etc.

Finally, similar to how the physical symptoms can strike us and threaten our health conditions at any given moment, stress can also turn out to be a warning indication of emotional, behavioral, and mental health issues which are classed as follows:

a. Anxiety

b. Depression

c. Agony

d. Feeling temperamental (easily get annoyed)

e. Being excessively critical

f. Cry too often

g. Feeling lonely and desperate

h. Loss in sense of humor

i. Feeling skeptical / being pessimist

j. Lack of creativity

k. Cannot concentrate or focus on something

l. Difficulty in thinking

m. Lack of motivation

n. Indulge in excess solitude and no longer bother interested to socialize with other people

Note: Kindly look through the “Category” section for the complete list of articles published. Don't forget to subscribe and share our articles as many times as possible on any social media platform.